The technology for rigging one's face is so democratized that its use questions Hollywood … and more generally the US government. How much does an actor possess his body?
In 2018 a video from BuzzFeed goes around the world. Barack Obama presents the dangers of "deepfake", these fake videos using increasingly sophisticated technologies based on artificial intelligence to change a face and its actions. Of course the video turns out to be a pretty impressive deepfake, doubled by Jordan Peele.
Although some imperfections can be noticed, the success of this image manipulation is mainly bluffing. And to tell the truth, they are becoming more common. At a time when information can scroll in seconds in a news feed on social networks, some deepfakes can go unnoticed if you don't pay attention. And as the video from BuzzFeedAnyone can do anything with this technology.
From that moment on, the democratization of software makes it possible today to easily reproduce the face of one person, in particular to model it on the body of another. In most cases, deepfakes are believed to be funny, disturbing and immediately identifiable experiments, especially when the fascination of the Internet for Nicolas Cage makes the face of the latter appear in all kinds of films. But this means that it is possible to implant a celebrity in images where it should not appear.
Possible deviations, which require a revision of the laws
Unauthorized commercials, defamatory videos & … The American constitution is now trying to anticipate the many possible deviations from deepfake through certain legal texts. Nevertheless according to The Hollywood Reporter, the most important limit for these steps is the ability, often complex, to evaluate the purpose of one of these videos. Can we really consider defamation if the seams of the technology are visible, or if the deepfake has been announced by the maker?
In fact, if the fear of deepfake lies in its ability to fool us, it is only the reflection of a culture that is increasingly rooted in post-information and in the constant piracy of reality through images. In the case of cinema, we can see that the deepfake has become a tool to rewrite the history of seventh art, especially when we know that some actors have refused roles that could have been decisive in their career. In this way it is possible today to make this fantasy alternative concrete, to bring the uchronie to life.
Soon digital liners perfect in all films?
In short, deepfake is currently a fascinating tool that worries the entertainment industry in the sense that it makes digital liners possible, especially with the help of recording performance. Recently movies like Fast and furious 7 and Rogue One: A Star Wars Story used technology to recreate the faces of the late Paul Walker and Peter Cushing, or to rediscover the youthful features of Princess Leia from the first Star Wars.
>> Read also: "Solo: A Star Wars Story": When a fan revives the face of Harrison Ford
From an ethical point of view, the recreation of a deceased actor remains in question, because it is assumed that the person is no longer in possession of his own body. Some would say that the cinema is still in a Faustian pact (and that would not be wrong), but the fact that the studio & # 39; s virtual copies of a personality as one in their database may have a pop leads today to reconsider the link of an actor to his own image, which could be used against his will (especially in the context of pornographic deepfakes, which are increasingly common).
For example a fan of Game of Thrones had a lot of fun taking a clip from the series to change points. In this scene Kit Harington explains in a convincing imitation that he hates season 8. If the series is pretty funny and good-natured (especially since the lip-sync is far from perfect), we can imagine that the actor , who has not commented on the quality of this final, appreciates someone manipulating his body to impose a speech on it.
"Gemini Man" Ang Lee, a highly anticipated film
Much more explicit, the YouTube channel Digital corridor, which specializes in making short films that require special effects, has made several videos with the capabilities of deepfake. In one of their most realistic creations, she dissects the process through which her teams could imagine Tom Cruise's visit to their buildings.
Moreover, the end of the year will be marked by the release of the highly anticipated one Twin Man Ang Lee, based on the filmmaker's new technical ability: to make a film about Will Smith and his younger clone, whose body will consist entirely of computer-generated images, but which will interact based on the performance of the actor.
>> See also: "Gemini Man" and his two Will Smith reveal in a revolutionary featurette
The tools that lead to deepfake have necessarily contributed to this distorting mirror in a reinforced version, as magnificent as it is disturbing. There is no doubt that the scenario, which seems to be stuck on a yacht between the two characters, should throw these interrogations that haunt the factory with dreams into the abyss.